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SOPHIA OF WISDOM III - ARCADIA



LIBRARY OF SOPHIA OF WISDOM III
SOPHIA OF ALL SOPHIA OF WISDOMS
AKA
CAROLINE E. KENNEDY______________________________

OCTOBER 29, 2006

Arcadia

(Greek: Ἀ) is a modern Greek province dating back to antiquity. As a consequence of its sparsely inhabited mountainous topography it was occupied mainly by pastoralists. Subsequently it has become a poetic byword for an idyllic vision of unspoiled wilderness filled with the bounties of nature and inhabited by shepherds(having more or less the same connotation as Utopia), and as a concept originated in Renaissance mythology. The inhabitants were often regarded as having continued to live after the manner of the Golden Age, without the pride and avarice that corrupted other regions.
 
[1] It is also sometimes referred to in English poetry as Arcady. The inhabitants of this region bear an obvious connection to the figure of the Noble savage, both being regarded as living close to nature, uncorrupted by civilization, and so virtuous.

Arcadia is now the name of many cities in the United States.

Arcadia in antiquity
According to Greek mythology, Arcadia of Peloponnesus was the domain of Pan, the virgin wilderness home of the god of the forest and his court of dryads, nymphs and other spirits of nature. It was a version of paradise, though only in the sense of being the abode of supernatural entities, not an afterlife for deceased mortals.


Thomas Eakins, "Arcadia"Arcadia has remained a popular artistic subject since antiquity, both in visual arts and literature. Images of beautiful nymphs frolicking in lush forests have been a frequent source of inspiration for painters and sculptors. Greek mythology inspired the Roman poet Virgil to write his Eclogues, a series of poems set in Arcadia. As a result of the influence of Virgil in medieval European literature (see, for example, The Divine Comedy), Arcadia became a symbol of pastoral simplicity. European Renaissance writers (for instance, the Spanish poet Garcilaso de la Vega) often revisited the theme, and the name came to apply to any idyllic location or paradise. Unlike the word "utopia" (named for Thomas More's book, Utopia), "Arcadia" does not carry the connotation of a human-designed civilization; Arcadia is presented as the spontaneous result of life lived naturally, uncorrupted by civilization.

Of particular note is Et in Arcadia ego by Nicholas Poussin, which has become famous both in its own right and because of its (possible) connection with the gnostic histories of the Rosicrucians (see below). In 1502 Jacopo Sannazaro published his long poem Arcadia that fixed the Early Modern perception of Arcadia as a lost world of idyllic bliss, remembered in regretful dirges. The play A Midsummer Night's Dream by William Shakespeare is set within an Arcadian realm ruled by a fairy king and queen. In the 1590s Sir Philip Sidney circulated copies of his influential heroic romance poem The Countess of Pembroke's Arcadia establishing Arcadia as an icon of the Renaissance; although the story is plentifully supplied with shepherds and other pastoral figures, the central characters of the plot are all royalty visiting the countryside.

[...] Does not the pleasantness of this place carry in itself sufficient reward for any time lost in it, or for any such danger that might ensue? Do you not see how everything conspires together to make this place a heavenly dwelling? Do you not see the grass, how in color they excel the emeralds [...]? Do not these stately trees seem to maintain their flourishing old age, with the only happiness of their seat being clothed with a continual spring, because no beauty here should ever fade? Doth not the air breathe health which the birds (both delightful both to the ear and eye) do daily solemnize with the sweet consent of their voices? Is not every echo here a perfect music? And these fresh and delightful brooks, how slowly they slide away, as, loath to leave the company of so many things united in perfection, and with how sweet a murmur they lament their forced departure.
 
Certainly, certainly, cousin, it must needs be, that some goddess this desert belongs unto, who is the soul of this soil, for neither is any less than a goddess worthy to be shrined in such a heap of pleasures, nor any less than a goddess could have made it so perfect a model of the heavenly dwellings. [...]

Friedrich August von Kaulbach - In ArcadiaThough depicted as contemporary, this pastoral form is often connected with the Golden Age.
 
 It may be suggested that its inhabitants have merely continued to live as people did in the Golden Age, and all other nations have less pleasant lives because they have allowed themselves to depart from the original simplicity.


Modern usage
In 1945, Evelyn Waugh entitled the first part of his novel Brideshead Revisited with the phrase 'Et in Arcadia ego', referring to his protagonist's blissful and innocent interbellum years as an undergraduate student at Oxford University at the height of the British Empire and his new-found friendship with an eccentric aristocratic family.

In 1993, Tom Stoppard wrote an acclaimed play with this title, referring to the sense of classical beauty and order associated with Arcadia.

In recent literature, especially fantasy, Arcadia has been used for a magical realm, respective to the fictional universe the story occurs. A number of role-playing games have also adopted the idea, either using it as a separate realm within the multiverse (a la the Arcadia of the Dungeons & Dragons universe), or even using it as the central focus of an entire game system (as was the case with White Wolf's Changeling: The Dreaming game).

According to the best-selling PC-game The Longest Journey, Arcadia was divided from the primordial original world, and represents fantasy, dreams and magic, while our world, Stark, is the world of science and technology. 'Arkadia' was also a subterranean world in the French cartoon series Spartakus and the Sun Beneath the Sea.

The name has recently been popularized by its connection to the pseudohistory of the Freemasons - in particular the Latin motto "Et in Arcadia ego" (even here, I [Death] exist.) The phrase is used frequently in conspiracy fiction and lore, such as the pseudohistorical work Holy Blood, Holy Grail and the novel The Da Vinci Code, where it is interpreted as an anagram of I!
Tego Arcana Dei (Begone! I know the secrets of God).

The Libertines, especially Pete Doherty, use Arcadia as the destination their ship Albion is sailing towards. It is thought of as a place without rules or authority, where cigarettes grow on trees and park benches are covered in denim, and it is evenly populated by Cockney Rudeboys and Dickensian Gentlemen. The American rockband Red Hot Chili Peppers refer to Arcadia in their album title "Stadium Arcadium".

External links
Net in Arcadia Virtual Museum of Contemporary Classicism
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arcadia_%28utopia%29"
Categories: Articles lacking sources from June 2006 | All articles lacking sources | Greek mythology | Fictional dimensions | Utopias | Fictional countries | Renaissance art | Concepts of Heaven | Arcadia | Visual motifs


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LIBRARY OF SOPHIA OF WISDOM III
SOPHIA OF WISDOM III - LIBRARY GUEST BOOK

 
Arcadia or Arkada (Greek Αρκαδία) is a region of Greece in the Peloponnesus. It takes its name from the mythological character Arcas
 
Modern Arcadia

Arcadia has its present-day capital at Tripoli. It forms the largest prefecture on the Peloponnesian peninsula. It currently covers about 18% of the entire peninsula, although it once extended to about 20 to 25% of the peninsula.

The prefecture has a skiing resort on Mount Maenalus, the Mainalon, located about 20 km NW of Tripoli. The other mountains include the Parnon in the southeast, the Artemisio, the Saita, the Skiathio, the Lykaia and Tsiberou.

The Greek National Road 7 (E65) highway, which was extended after 1997 and in 2003, runs through Arcadia on a north-west to south-east axis and nearly forms in the southwest the end of the highway. A thermoelectric power station which produces electricity for most of southern Greece, operates to the south of Megalopolis, along with a coal mine.

Arcadia has two tunnels. The Artemisio Tunnel opened first, followed by the tunnel east of Megalopolis; both serve traffic flowing between Messenia and Athens.

In agriculture, potato farms (dominant in central and northcentral Arcadia), mixed farming, olive groves, and pasture dominate the plains of Arcadia, especially in the area around Megalopolis and between Tripoli and Levidi. One of these cuisines were featured on Mega Channel's cooking show hosted by Mamalakis that was shown on prime time.

Theodoros Kolokotronis (1770 - 1843), a general in the Greek War of Independence (1821 - 1832), lived in Arcadia.

Dimitris Plapoutas (1786-1864), a general in the Greek War of Independence, also lived in Arcadia.

 Ancient and modern towns and cities

The chief cities and communities in the prefecture include Tripoli, Astros, Vytina, Dimitsana, Lagkadia, Leonidio, Leontari, Levidi, Megalopolis Paloumba and Stemnitsa.

Ancient cities include Asea, Astros, Athinaio, Daseae, Falaisia (Phalesia), Gortys, Hypsus (Stemnitsa, Irea, Lusi, Lykaio, Megalopoli, Tegea, Thoknia,. Trapezus, Tropaia, Tripoli and more.

Climate

The climate consists of hot summers and mild winters in the eastern part, the southern part, the low lying areas and the central area at altitudes lower than 1,000 m. The area primarily receives rain during fall and winter months in the rest of Arcadia. Winter snow occurs commonly in the mountainous areas for much of the west and the northern part, the Taygetus area, the Mainalon.

History

Les Bergers d’Arcadie by Nicolas Poussin.
Les Bergers d’Arcadie by Nicolas Poussin.
 
****NOTES OF SOPHIA OF WISDOM III - CAROLINE E. KENNEDY THESE ARE NOT STAR GODS THEY ARE PLAYING AROUND WITH MAGIC JUST LIKE JFK,JR AND HIS DINE A DOZEN MOTHER'S OF DARKNESS.

Due to its remote, mountainous character, Arcadia has always been a classical refuge. So during the Dorian invasion, when Mycenaean Greek was replaced with Doric = DORIA Greek along the coast of the Peloponnes, it survived in Arcadia, developing into the Arcadocypriot dialect of Classical Antiquity.

Arcadocypriot never became a literary dialect, but it is known from inscriptions. Tsan is a letter of the Greek alphabet occurring only in Arcadia, shaped like Cyrillic И; it represents an affricate that developed from labiovelars in context where they became t in other dialects. Tsakonian Greek , still spoken on the coast of the modern prefecture of Arcadia, in the Classical period considered the southern Argolid coast immediately adjoining Arcadia, is a descendant of Doric Greek, and as such is an extraordinary example of a surviving regional dialect of archaic Greek. The capital of Tsakonia is the Arcadian coastal town of Leonidio.

One of the birthplaces reported for Zeus is Mount Lycaeum in Arcadia. Lycaon, a cannibalistic Pelasgian king, was transformed into a werewolf by Zeus. Lycaon's daughter was Callisto. It was also said to have been the birthplace of Zeus' son, Hermes.

Arcadia remained a rustic, secluded area, and its inhabitants became proverbial as primitive herdsmen leading simple pastoral unsophisticated yet happy lives, to the point that Arcadia may refer to some imaginary idyllic paradise, immortalized by Virgil's Eclogues, and later by Jacopo Sannazaro in his pastoral masterpiece, Arcadia (1504); see also Arcadia (utopia).

Arcadia later joined the Roman Empire and later the Byzantine Empire. In the early-1st millennium, the area became a part of the Frankish Empire. In the mid-15th century, the region fell into the hands of the Ottoman Turks with some exceptions in the 16th century for a couple of years. During these periods, many towns and villages were founded.

The Latin phrase Et in Arcadia ego which is usually interpreted to mean "I am also in Arcadia" or "I am even in Arcadia" is an example of memento mori, a cautionary reminder of the transitory nature of life and the inevitability of death. The phrase is most often associated with a 1647 painting by Nicolas Poussin, also known as "The Arcadian Shepherds". In the painting the phrase appears as an inscription on a tomb discovered by youthful figures in classical garb. It has been suggested that the phrase is an anagram for the Latin phrase "I! Tego arcana Dei", which translates to "Begone! I keep God's secrets."[citation needed]

After 400 years of occupation by the Ottomans, Arcadia was the epicentre of the Greek War of Independence which saw victories in their battles including one in Tripoli which saw the Greek revolutionaries slaughter around 30,000 Turks. After a victorious revolutionary war, Arcadia was finally incorporated into a newly-created Greek state. Arcadia saw economic growth and small emigration.

In the 20th century, Arcadia experienced extensive population loss through emigration, mostly to the Americas. Many Arcadian villages lost almost half their inhabitants, and fears arose that they would turn into ghost towns. Arcadia now has a smaller population than Corinthia. Demographers expected that its population would halve between 1951 and the early 21st century. The prefectural population is in a range to a point that could fall below the 100,000 mark which could make it the next prefecture in Greece to have less than 100,000 people.

After World War II and the Greek Civil War, many villages and towns were rebuilt.

An enormous earthquake with a 5 Richter scale range shook Megalopoli and the surrounding area. Many buildings were destroyed, leaving people homeless. Within a couple of years, the buildings were rebuilt anti-seismically. In 1967, construction began on the Megalopoli Power Plant. It began operating in 1970, producing electricity for southern Greece. A mining area south of the plant is the largest mining area in the peninsula and continues to the present day with one settlement moved.

Water problems troubled local residents protesting over the rights of water usage with the Argolida and its new reservoir near Saga, on July 3, 2007. On July 27, a wildfire broke out in Gortynia in the western portion, threatening several nearby villages and burning a small portion of the forested area. Less than a month later, another minor forest fire occurred near Tropaia, on Thursday August 23. A day later, the minor fire became a major blaze beginning in the southwest of Arcadia Soulos. Arson-related fires spread and burned villages including Chrousa, Leontari, Vasta, Tourkoleka, Dirahi, near Megalopoli, Makryssi and Anavryto, and burned around 5% of the prefecture and the southwestern portion. The fire raging in the southern Ilia prefecture spread into Arcadia, and began to burn Atsicholos and the area around Karytaina. Residents prevented the fire from entering Megalopoli, Karytaina, and its surrounding area by chopping down trees, preventing it from entering the village ; helicopters received water from Lake Taka and the sea. The fires continued from Friday August 24, with high winds and hot temperatures reported at 42C ; the outbreaks slowed slowed three days later but progressed on Tuesday August 27. The blazes finally died down when temperatures dropped and a low pressure system from southern Europe brought rain into the area ; roads had been closed and electricity cut off for several days. At the extinguishing of the fire, hundreds of mobile homes were sent to inhabitants who had lost houses. Trees and a number of groves are to be planted, but it is expected to take a few years to restore part of the area's natural beauty and forest. Less seriously for the area, Kynouria experienced weather problems in the winter, with a snowstorm affecting Leonidi and the village of Agios Petros on February 10, 2008.

SEE ARCADIA http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arcadia

Arcadia



Location of Arcadia in central Peloponnesus (enlarge)



Relevant links
Map of Greece

Arcadia is the region in central Peloponnesus south of Achaea, north of Messenia and Laconia, east of Argolis and west of Elis. The boundaries of the kingdoms of Arcadia and the succession in the thrones are however less certain, and many have been called "King of Arcadia".

Remembered first king

The first king in Arcadia is said to have been Pelasgus 1, after whom the inhabitants of the Peloponnesus were called Pelasgians. But otherwise, he is remembered as the king of Argos who received and protected Danaus 1 and his daughters, the DANAIDS. Pelasgus 1 was the son of Zeus and Niobe 1, the first mortal woman to have consorted with the god; otherwise Pelasgus 1 is said to have been an autochthon (i.e. a son of the soil, see AUTOCHTHONOUS, or as it is also asserted, son of Palaechthon. She was in turn daughter of Phoroneus, who is at the origin of the royal house of Argos, and is said to be the first man. Pelasgus 1's brother Argus 5 became in fact king of Argos after Phoroneus.

Some say that Pelasgus 1 married Deianira 4, daughter of Lycaon 6, son of Aezeius. This Aezeius is said to have been one of the first kings of the Peloponnesus. Others affirm that Pelasgus 1 married Meliboea 1, one of the OCEANIDS, and still others say that his wife was Cyllene 1, a Naiad, after whom Mount Cyllene in Arcadia is named (but it is also said that it was after Cyllen, daughter of Elatus 2, that Mount Cyllene, the highest in Arcadia, was named). One of these women gave birth to impious Lycaon 2, who sat on the throne after Pelasgus 1.

Impious king

Lycaon 2 was a powerful king who thought he could defy the gods, and his sons were notorious for their insolence, pride and impiety. Because of his crimes (Lycaon 2 sacrificed a human baby), Zeus transformed him into a wolf or blasted him and his sons with a thunderbolt. (For the numerous cities founded by the sons of Lycaon 2 see this one.)

King during the time of the Flood

The one son who survived the the god's wrath, Nyctimus, who some say was the youngest and others the eldest of the sons, succeeded his father on the throne. So, in that case, it cannot be, as some say, that Nyctimus was the human baby that Lycaon 2 served to Zeus as a meal. In any case, it is told that it is about this time that Zeus, tired of the crimes of this peculiar family, sent the Flood that destroyed mankind in the age of Deucalion 1.

Parrhasius

Phylonome, daughter of Nyctimus and Arcadia 2, consorted with Ares and had twins; one of them, Parrhasius, has been called king of Arcadia. This Phylonome used to hunt with Artemis. However, Ares got her with child in the guise of a shepherd. Fearing her father, Phylonome cast her twin children into the river Erymanthus, but they found haven in the trunk of a tree. A wolf suckled the children, and the shepherd Gyliphus reared them as his own.

King calls the land Arcadia while others emigrate

After Nyctimus, the kingdom was ruled by Arcas 1, son of Zeus and Callisto, daughter of Lycaon 2. Some tell that Maia, the eldest of the PLEIADES and mother of Hermes, brought up Arcas 1 in the land that was called Arcadia after him (instead of Pelasgia).

Arcas 1, who some say was the human baby whom Lycaon 2 served to Zeus at a banquet, was put among the constellations (Bear-Watcher), and made immortal. He is called Arctophylax since he guards Arctos (Great Bear) which is his mother Callisto, placed among the stars by Zeus. Arcas 1 is said to have introduced the cultivation of crops, which he learned from Triptolemus. During his time, men learned to make bread and to weave clothes, which has proved useful until now.

In the meanwhile, other grandsons of impious Lycaon 2, such as Archedius, Gortys 2 and Cydon 1, migrated to Crete, and after them were named the cities Cydonia, Gortyna and Catreus. These are sons of Tegeates and Maera 3, daughter of Atlas.

Some say that Atlas himself was once king of Arcadia, and that he was succeeded in the throne by Deimas, son of Dardanus 1 and Chryse 3 (see also Troy).

Several kingdoms

After Arcas 1, his sons became kings in different Arcadian districts. Azan ruled in Azania, and Aphidas 1, a weak king, ruled in Tegea; and Elatus 2, who at first ruled in Mount Cyllene, migrated to Phocis, helped the Phocians against the Phlegyans, and founded the city of Elateia.

At Azan's death, his son Clitor 2 came to the throne and became the most powerful of the kings in Arcadia. But having died childless, he was succeeded by Aepytus 3 and Stymphalus 1, sons of Elatus 2.

False friend

Pelops 1, an Asian immigrant after whom the Peloponnesus was named, made war on Stymphalus 1's Arcadian kingdom, but when he could not defeat him he slew Stymphalus under a pretence of friendship, and scattered his limbs. For this reason the whole of Hellas suffered of infertility, a calamity that only was averted when pious Aeacus (the same who now keeps the keys of the Underworld) offered prayers.

Aleus

When Stymphalus 1 was murdered by the false friend Pelops 1, and Aepytus 3 was killed by a serpent while hunting, Aphidas 1's son Aleus became king. Aleus married Neaera 3, daughter of Pereus, son of Elatus 2, and had children by her, among which Auge 2 and Lycurgus 2. Aleus built a sanctuary of Athena in Tegea, and made this city the capital of his kingdom.

Aleus' daughter


Personification of Arcadia, the region in central Peloponnesus. Behind her stands Pan (or perhaps just one of the PANS) with his pipes. There are at least two women named Arcadia—one of the DANAIDS, and the wife of Nictymus, the son of Lycaon 2. But the region is said to have been called after Arcas 1, the son of Callisto


Aleus' daughter Auge 2 was seduced by Heracles 1, and she hid her little child by him (Telephus) in the precinct of Athena that her father had built and whose priesthood she held. But the land remained barren, and the oracles declared that there was impiety in the temple. Finally she was discovered and delivered by her father to Nauplius 1 to be put to death. But Nauplius 1 gave her to King Teuthras 1 of Mysia (northwestern part of Asia Minor), who married her. Her child Telephus was exposed on Mount Parthenius by Aleus, but he survived because a doe gave him suck. Later shepherds found him and called him Telephus. He was adopted by the king of Mysia, on whose death he succeeded to the throne. During his rule, Telephus chased the Achaean expedition, which having sailed against Troy, arrived by mistake in Mysia.

Lycurgus 2 kills mace-man and outlives his own children

Lycurgus 2 succeeded his father Aleus as king of the Arcadians, and lived a long life. His son Ancaeus 1 is counted among the ARGONAUTS, and among the CALYDONIAN HUNTERS. He was killed by the Calydonian Boar during the hunt. As his other son, Epochus died of an illness, Lycurgus 2 had no heirs when he left this world. Some say that Iasus 1, sometimes called father of Atalanta, was also his son. Lycurgus 2 is known for having killed King Areithous 1, who was called the mace-man, because he only used as a weapon an iron mace. Lycurgus 2 came upon Areithous 1 in a narrow way, where the mace was useless, and killed him with his spear despoiling him of the armour that Ares had given him. Later, when Lycurgus 2 grew old, he gave the armour to Ereuthalion 1, his squire, who in turn was killed by Nestor in a war between the Arcadians and the Pylians (for Pylians see Pylos).

Echemus

As no child of Lycurgus 2 was alive when he died, Echemus, son of Aeropus 2, son of Cepheus 2, son of Aleus, became king (for Cepheus 2 see Sparta). During his time, the HERACLIDES made an attempt to return to the Peloponnesus under the leadership of Hyllus 1, but were defeated in a battle at the Isthmus of Corinth. In this battle Echemus killed Hyllus 1, son of Heracles 1, in single combat. Echemus married Timandra 1, daughter of Tyndareus and Leda, and had by her a son Laodocus, after whom the suburb Ladoceia near Megalopolis was named.

Time to sail to Troy

Echemus was succeeded on the throne by Agapenor, son of Ancaeus 1, son of Lycurgus 2. Agapenor was later one of he SUITORS OF HELEN. Consequently, he became one of the ACHAEAN LEADERS, and he is counted among those who hid inside the WOODEN HORSE. After the Trojan War, Agapenor did not return to Arcadia; instead he sailed to Cyprus, founded Paphos, where he ruled.

Capital moves to Trapezus

As Agapenor did not return from Troy, the kingdom of Arcadia devolved upon Hippothous 6, son of Cercyon 2, son of Agamedes 2, son of Stymphalus 1. Hippothous 6 established his capital in Trapezus, and was succeeded by his son Aepytus 4, who was struck blind after entering a forbidden sanctuary of Poseidon, dying shortly after.

Mycenaean power

During the reign of Aepytus 4, King Orestes 2 of Mycenae, son of Agamemnon, moved his home from Mycenae to Arcadia, as his realm had extended considerably. Orestes 2 was killed by the bite of a snake at Oresteum in Arcadia. This town was previously called Oresthasium, and had been founded by Orestheus 2, son of Lycaon 2.

Arcadia spared by the HERACLIDES

Cypselus 1 succeeded his father Aepytus 4 as king of the Arcadians, and was founder of a place called Basilis. It is during his reign that the HERACLIDES effected their return invading the Peloponnesus, not as it had before been attempted, that is, across the Corinthian Isthmus, but by sea. Cypselus 1 made an agreement with the invaders, marrying his daughter Merope 2 to the Heraclid Cresphontes, and in this way he had nothing to fear.

From father to son

Cresphontes received the kingdom of Messenia by casting lots with Procles 2 and Eurysthenes 1, who received Lacedaemon and Sparta, while Cypselus 1's son Holaeas succeeded his father on the throne. The rule passed thereafter from father to son: Holaeas to Bucolion 3 to Phialus (who changed the name of the city Phigalia to Phialia) to Simus to Pompus to Aeginetes 2 to Polymestor 2 (under whose reign the Lacedaemonians for the first time invaded Tegea, led by Charillus. On this occasion the Lacedaemonians were defeated in battle by the Tegeans, who used men and women alike in defending the city; the whole Lacedaemonian army, including Charillus, were taken prisoners). Polymestor 2 was succeeded by Aechmis, son of Briacas, brother of Polymestor 2.


Throne Succession Arcadia



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Sources
Abbreviations

Aes.Supp.250 and passim; Apd.2.1.1, 2.7.4, 3.8.1-2, 3.9.1-2, 3.10.6, 3.10.8; DH.1.11.2. 1.13.2; Arg.161ff.; Dio.4.33.1, 4.68.1; Hdt.9.26; Hes.CWE.31, 65-67; Hom.Apo.3.209; Hom.Il.2.609; Hyg.Fab.14, 176; Lib.Met.31; Nonn.18.22; Pau.2.26.6, 4.3.6, 8.2.3, 8.3.1ff., 8.4.1-10, 8.5.1-2, 8.5.4-10, 8.10.3, 8.16.2, 8.17.6, 8.22.1, 8.23.1, 8.24.1, 8.29.5, 8.44.1, 8.45.7; Pin.Oly.6.30ff., 10.66; Plu.PS.36; QS.12.314ff.; Strab.5.2.4. Other mentions of Arcadia: Apd.1.8.2, 1.8.6, 2.2.2, 2.5.3, 2.5.7, 2.7.2, 2.7.3, 2.7.7, 3.6.3, 3.7.5, 3.8.1, 3.8.2, 3.10.1, 3.11.2, 3.12.6; Apd.Ep.1.23, 3.12, 4.263, 4.264, 6.28, 7.39; Arg.1.125, 1.161, 2.1052; Cal.Ar.216, 221; Cal.Del.70; Cal.Ze.19; Hom.Il.2.603, 2.611, 7.134; Hyg.Fab.14, 30, 70, 97, 173a, 206, 225, 242, 253, 274; Nonn.2.527, 13.287.13.295, 18.24, 25.194, 36.70, 37.180, 41.355, 42.290, 47.252, 48.711; Ov.Met.1.217.


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*3 CLAIM -
VALENTINA DORIA I II III -
SOPHIA OF WISDOM III -
CAROLINE E. KENNEDY