King of the Jews
We can easily conclude from the writing of Josephus that during this period Herod’s biggest
problems were domestic. Herod had married ten wives. His first wife was Doris by whom he had one son, Antipater. Herod renounced
Doris and Antipater when he married Mariamne but they were allowed to visit Jerusalem only during the festivals.
In 37 B.C. Herod married Mariamne, the granddaughter of Hyrcanus, who bore him five children. The two daughters
were Salampsio and Cypros. The youngest son died during the course of his education in Rome. The older sons were Alexander
and Aristobulus, who played an important part during this period of Herod's life. Herod married
his third wife Mariamne II in late 24 B.C. by whom he had Herod (Philip). His fourth wife was a Samaritan, Malthace, by whom
he had Archelaus and Antipas. His fifth wife, Cleopatra of Jerusalem, was the mother of Philip. Of the other five wives only
Pallas, Phaedra, and Elpsis are known by name, and none of these are of significance.
Herod's favorite sons were the
sons of Mariamne I, Alexander and Aristobulus. After they had returned from Rome and had married Glaphyra and Berenice, troubles
domestically began to come to the forefront. Salome, Herod's sister and mother of Berenice, hated these two sons and tried
desperately to establish her own son. It may well be that to a certain degree the arrogance of the two sons of Mariamne I
was because of being a part of the Hasmonean dynasty. Salome aggravated them by speaking ill of their mother whom Herod had
killed, which caused them to defend her. Salome and Pheroras (brother of Herod and Salome) reported to Herod that his life
was in danger because the two sons were not going to leave the murder of their mother unavenged and that Archelaus, king of
Cappadocia (father of Glaphyra), would help them to reach the emperor and bring charges against their father.
to somehow correct things and to show them that there might be another who could be heir to the throne, he recalled his exiled
son Antipater. In the spring of 13 B.C. Herod sent Antipater to Rome in the company of Agrippa (friend of Augustus), who left
the east to go to Rome, so that he might present Antipater to the emperor.
But instead of helping correct things, Antipater
used every conceivable means to acquire the throne. He used slander against his two half brothers. The problems between Herod
and Mariamne's two sons became so great that Herod decided to accuse his two sons before the emperor. In 12 B.C. the two sons
went with Herod and they were tried before Augustus in Aquileia.
After the case was heard Augustus was able to reconcile
Herod and his sons, and having restored domestic peace, the father, the two sons, and Antipater returned home. When they arrived
home Herod named Antipater as his first successor and next after him were to be Alexander and Aristobulus.
Not long after they had arrived home Antipater, being helped by Herod's sister Salome and Herod's brother
Pheroras, began to slander the two sons of Mariamne. Alexander and Aristobulus became more hostile in their attitude. Herod
became suspicious and became more and more fearful about the situation. Antipater played on Herod's fears. He even caused
the friends of Alexander to be tortured so that they might confess any attempt to take Herod's life and one friend made the
admission that Alexander, with the help of Aristobulus, had planned to kill him and then flee to Rome to lay claim on his
kingdom. For this Alexander was committed to prison.
When the Cappadocian king Archelaus, Alexander's father-in-law,
heard of this state of affairs, he began to fear for his daughter and son-in-law and thus made a journey to Jerusalem to see
if there could be reconciliation. He appeared before Herod very angry over his good-for-nothing son-in-law and threatened
to take his daughter back with him. This was actually a very sly maneuver on the part of Archelaus because, in doing this,
Herod defended his son against Archelaus and Archelaus accomplished the reconciliation he desired and then returned to his
home. This probably happened in 10 B.C. Thus there was peace once again in Herod's household.
During this same period
Herod had troubles with some foreign enemies and with the emperor. Syllaeus, who ruled in the place of the Arabian king Obodas
and who was very hostile to Herod, gave shelter to forty rebels of Trachonitis and tried to relieve his country from paying
a debt contracted with Herod. Herod demanded that he hand over the rebels and pay the debt.
With the consent of the
governor of Syria, Saturninus, Herod invaded Arabia and enforced his rights (around 9 B.C.). This was only to be a disciplinary
measure with no intentions of territorial gain, but Syllaeus had meanwhile gone to Rome and distorted the picture with the
result that Augustus became suspicious and indicated to Herod that their friendship was at an end and that he would no longer
treat him as a friend but as a subject. In order to justify himself Herod sent an embassy to Rome and when this failed he
sent a second under the leadership of Nicolas of Damascus (Jos. Antiq. xvi. 9. 1-4 ; 271-299).
Meanwhile the domestic
conflicts again came to the forefront. A certain Eurycles from Lacedemon, a man of bad character, inflamed the father against
the sons and the sons against the father. As other mischief-makers became involved, Herod's patience was exhausted and he
put Alexander and Aristobulus into prison, and laid a complaint against them before the emperor of their being involved in
Meanwhile Nicolas of Damascus had accomplished his mission and had again won over the emperor to
Herod. When the messengers who were bringing the accusations of Herod reached Rome, they found Augustus in a favorable mood
and he gave Herod absolute power to proceed in the matter of his sons as he wished but advised him that the trial should take
place outside of Herod's territory at Berytus (Beirut), before a court of which Roman officials would form part and to have
the charges against his sons investigated.
Herod accepted the advice of the emperor. Although the governor of Syria,
Saturninus, and his three sons thought that the sons were guilty but should not be put to death, the court almost unanimously
pronounced the death sentence upon the sons. Tiro, an old soldier, publicly proclaimed that the trial had been unjust and
the truth suppressed. But he and 300 others were not considered to be friends of Alexander and Aristobulus and thus they were
executed. Therefore, at Sebaste (Samaria), where Herod had married Mariamne thirty years before, her two sons were executed
by strangling, prob. in 7 B.C.
Antipater, now remaining the sole heir and enjoying the full confidence of his father,
was still not satisfied, for he wished to have the government wholly in his own hands. He held secret conferences with Herod's
brother Pheroras, tetrarch of Perea, which Salome reported to her brother Herod, stating that they were contriving to kill
him. Thus the relationship of Antipater and his father became tense. Antipater knew this and wrote to his friends in Rome
to ask if Augustus would instruct Herod to send Antipater to Rome. Herod sent him to Rome and designated in his will that
Antipater was his successor to the throne and in the event that Antipater's death might occur before his own, Herod (Philip),
son of Mariamne II, the high priest's daughter, was named as his successor.
While Antipater was in Rome, Pheroras died
which proved to be the seal of Antipater's fate. Freedmen of Pheroras went to Herod to relate to him that Pheroras had been
poisoned and that Herod should investigate the matter more closely. It was found out that the poison was sent by Antipater
with the intention not to kill Pheroras but rather that Pheroras might give it to Herod. Herod also learned from the female
slaves of Pheroras' household of the complaints that Antipater had made at those secret meetings regarding the king's long
life and about the uncertainties of his prospects. Herod immediately recalled Antipater, disguising his real intentions, and
Antipater returned with no suspicion. When he arrived he was committed to prison in the king's palace and was tried the very
next day before Varus, the governor of Syria. With all of the accusations and proofs against him, Antipater could make no
defense. Herod put him in chains and made a report of the matter to the emperor. This occurred in 5 B.C.
of Antipater against Herod was unveiled and Herod desired to kill him. Herod became very ill with a disease from which he
would not recover. Therefore, he drew up a new will in which he by-passed his eldest sons, Archelaus and Philip, because Antipater
had poisoned his mind against them. Instead he chose the youngest son, Antipas, as his sole successor.
his death the Magi had come to Judea to worship the newborn king of the Jews. Herod summoned these Magi, asking them to report
to him the location of the Christ child when they found Him in Bethlehem. Being warned in a dream, the Magi did not return
to Herod but departed to the east by another route. The Lord appeared to Joseph in a dream and told him to flee to Egypt because
of Herod's intention to kill Jesus. Joseph and Mary fled to Egypt and Herod killed all the male children of Bethlehem who
were two years and under.
Herod was now nearly seventy years old and his sickness grew worse. As news spread that he
had an incurable disease, two rabbis, Judas, son of Sepphoraeus, and Matthias, son of Margalus, stirred up the people to tear
down the Roman eagle from the Temple gate that had been such an offence to the Jews. These rabbis stated that this action
would be pleasing to God. Herod, having heard this, seized the offenders and passed sentences of death upon them and had all
the chief leaders publicly burned alive.
As Herod's disease grew worse the baths at Callirrhoe no longer benefited
him. When he returned to Jericho he commanded all notable Jews from all parts of the nation to come to him and when they arrived
he shut them up in the hippodrome, summoned his sister Salome and her husband Alexas, and ordered that all these leaders should
be executed at the moment he died so that there would be a national mourning rather than a festival when he died.
the time he was giving these instructions, he received a letter from Rome in which the emperor gave him permission to execute
his son, Antipater, and thus he did so immediately. Herod again changed his mind and nominated Archelaus, the older son of
Malthace, as king and his brothers Antipas as tetrarch of Galilee and Perea and Philip as tetrarch of Gaulanitis, Trachonitis,
Batanea, and Paneas.
Finally, five days after the execution of Antipater, Herod died at Jericho in the spring of 4
B.C. Salome and Alexas released the Jewish nobles who were imprisoned to the hippodrome.
Ptolemy, who had been entrusted
with the king's seal, read Herod's last will in public and the crowd acclaimed Archelaus as their king. A pompous funeral
procession accompanied the body from Jericho, a distance of one mile in the direction of the Herodian, where it was finally
Herod's reign lasted around thirty-three years. It was for the most part one of violence. The middle of his reign
was by far the most peaceful. It is important to realize that though his reign was characterized by violence, the rulers of
that day were not much different than he was. Throughout his reign he was never liked by the Jews because of his lifestyle
and his unconcern for their law. Although he was the king of the Jews, many of his subjects would never treat him as truly
a Jewish king.
SEE LINK http://www.bible-history.com/herod_the_great/HERODKing_of_the_Jews.htm
SOPHIA OF WISDOM III - DORIS HEROD & KIDS
SOPHIA OF WISDOM III - HEROD 12
Herod the Great
Copper coin of Herod, bearing the legend "Basileus Herodon" on the obverse and a Macedonian sun-symbol on the reverse.
Herod the Great was born around 73 BC. He was the second son of Antipater the Idumaean, a high-ranked official under Ethnarch Hyrcanus II, and Cypros, a Nabatean. A loyal supporter of Hyrcanus II, Antipater appointed Herod governor of Galilee at 25, and his older brother, Phasael, governor of Jerusalem. He enjoyed the backing of Rome but his excessive brutality was condemned by the
In 43 BC, following the chaos caused by Antipater offering financial support to Caesar's murderers,
Antipater was poisoned. Herod, backed by the Roman Army, executed his father's murderer. Afterwards, Antigonus, Hyrcanus' nephew, tried to take the throne from his uncle. Herod defeated him and then married his teenage
niece, Mariamne (known as Mariamne I), which helped to secure him a claim to the throne and gain some Jewish favor. However,
Herod already had a wife, Doris, and a three-year-old son, Antipater III, and chose to banish Doris and her child.
In 42 BC, he convinced Mark Antony and Octavian that his father had been forced to help Caesar's murderers. Herod was then named tetrarch of Galilee by the Romans. However, many of the Jews were very upset by this since most Jews did not consider
Herod to be a true Jew. The Idumaean family, successors to the Edomites of the Hebrew Bible, settled in Idumea, formerly known as Edom, in southern Judea. When the Maccabean John Hyrcanus conquered Idumea in 140–130 BC, he required all Idumaeans to obey Jewish law or to leave; most
Idumaeans thus converted to Judaism. While King Herod publicly identified himself as a Jew and was considered as such by some, this religious identification notwithstanding was undermined by the Hellenistic cultural affinity of the Herodians, which would have earned them the antipathy of observant Jews.
In 40 BC Antigonus tried to take the throne again with the help of the Parthians, this time succeeding. Herod fled to Rome to plead with the Romans to restore him to power. There he
was elected "King of the Jews" by the Roman Senate. In 37 BC the Romans fully secured Judea and executed Antigonus. Herod took the role as sole ruler of Judea and took
the title of basileus (Gr. Βασιλευς) for himself, ushering in the Herodian Dynasty and ending the Hasmonean Dynasty. He ruled for 34 years.
Herod's most famous and ambitious project was the expansion of the Second Temple in Jerusalem.
In the eighteenth year of his reign (20–19 BC), Herod rebuilt the Temple on "a more magnificent
scale". The new Temple was finished in a year and a half, although work on out-buildings and courts continued another eighty
years. To comply with religious law, Herod employed 1,000 priests as masons and carpenters in the rebuilding. The finished temple, which was destroyed in 70 AD, is sometimes referred to as Herod's Temple. The Wailing Wall or Western Wall which now stands in Jerusalem is the wall which Herod built
around the west side of the courtyard surrounding the Temple.
Some of Herod's other achievements include the development of water supplies for Jerusalem,
building fortresses such as Masada and Herodium, and founding new cities such as Caesarea Maritima. He and Cleopatra owned a monopoly over the extraction of asphalt from the Dead Sea, which was used in ship building.
He leased copper mines on Cyprus from the Roman emperor.
Discovery of quarry
On September 25, 2007, Yuval Baruch, archaeologist with the Israeli Antiquities Authority announced their discovery of a quarry compound which provided King Herod with the stones to renovate the second Temple. It houses the Temple Mount. Coins, pottery and iron stake found proved the date of the quarrying to be about 19 BC. Archaeologist
Ehud Netzer confirmed that the large outlines of the stone cuts is evidence that it was a massive public project worked on
by hundreds of slaves.
New Testament references
Herod the Great appears in The Gospel according to Matthew (Ch. 2), which describes an event known as the Massacre of the Innocents.
According to Matthew's gospel, shortly after the birth of Jesus, Magi from the East visited Herod to inquire the whereabouts of "the one having been born king of the
Jews", because they had seen his star in the east and therefore wanted to pay him homage. Herod, who was himself King of Judea,
was alarmed at the prospect of the newborn king usurping his rule.
In the story, Herod was advised by the assembled chief priests and scribes of the people that
the Prophet had written that the "Anointed One" (Greek: ho christos) was to be born in Bethlehem of Judea. Herod therefore sent the Magi to Bethlehem, instructing them to search for the child and, after
they had found him, to "report to me, so that I too may go and worship him". However, after they had found Jesus, the Magi
were warned in a dream not to report back to Herod. Similarly, Joseph was warned in a dream that Herod intended to kill Jesus, so he and his family fled to Egypt.
When Herod realized he had been outwitted by the Magi, he gave orders to kill all boys of the age of two and under in Bethlehem
and its vicinity. Joseph and his family stayed in Egypt until Herod's death, then moved to Nazareth in Galilee in order to avoid living under Herod's son Archelaus
The historical accuracy of this event has been questioned, since although Herod was certainly guilty of many brutal acts,
including the killing of his wife and two of his sons, no other source from the period makes any reference to such a massacre.
Coin of Herod the Great, bearing a temple and star of david
The scholarly consensus, based on Josephus' Antiquities of the Jews is that Herod died at the end of March or early April in 4 BC. Josephus wrote that Herod died 37 years after being named
as King by the Romans, and 34 years after the death of Antigonus. This would imply that he died in 4 BC. This is confirmed by the fact that his three sons, between whom his kingdom
was divided, dated their rule from 4 BC. For instance, he states that Herod Philip II's death took place after a 37-year reign in the 20th year of Tiberius, which would imply that he took over on Herod's death in 4 BC. In addition, Josephus wrote that Herod died after a lunar eclipse, and a partial eclipse took place in 4 BC. It has been suggested that 5 BC might be a more likely date — there were two total eclipses in that year. However, the 4 B.C. date is almost universally accepted.
Josephus wrote that Herod's final illness was excruciating (Ant. 17.6.5). From Josephus' descriptions, some medical experts propose that Herod had chronic kidney disease complicated by Fournier's gangrene. Modern scholars agree he suffered throughout his lifetime from depression and paranoia.
After Herod's death, his kingdom was divided among three of his sons, namely Herod Archelaus, Herod Antipas, and Herod Philip II, who ruled as tetrarchs rather than kings.
Aerial photo of Herodium from the southwest
The location of Herod's tomb is documented by Roman historian Flavius Josephus, who writes, "And the body was carried two hundred furlongs, to Herodium, where he had given
order to be buried."
Flavius Josephus provides more clues about Herod's tomb which he calls Herod's monuments:
So they threw down all the hedges and walls which the inhabitants had made about their gardens
and groves of trees, and cut down all the fruit trees that lay between them and the wall of the city, and filled up all the
hollow places and the chasms, and demolished the rocky precipices with iron instruments; and thereby made all the place level
from Scopus to Herod's monuments, which adjoined to the pool called the Serpent's Pool.
Ehud Netzer, an archaeologist from Hebrew University, read the writings of Josephus and focused his search on the vicinity of the pool and its surroundings
at the Winter Palace of Herod in the Judean desert. An article of the New York Times states,
Lower Herodium consists of the remains of a large palace, a race track, service quarters, and
a monumental building whose function is still a mystery. Perhaps, says Ehud Netzer, who excavated the site, it is Herod's
mausoleum. Next to it is a pool, almost twice as large as modern Olympic-size pools.
It took 35 years for Netzer to identify the exact location, but on May 7, 2007, an Israeli team of archaeologists of the Hebrew University led by Netzer, announced they had discovered the tomb. The site is located at the exact location given by Flavius Josephus, atop of tunnels and water pools, at a flattened
desert site, halfway up the hill to Herodium, 12 kilometers (7.5 mi) south of Jerusalem.
The taking of Jerusalem by Herod the Great, 36 BC, by Jean Fouquet, late 15th century.
- 35 BC — Aristobulus III of Judea is drowned at a party, on Herod's orders.
- 32 BC — The war against Nabatea begins, with victory one year later.
- 30 BC — Herod is shown great favour by Octavian, who at Rhodes confirms him as King of Judaea.
- 29 BC — Josephus writes that Herod had great passion and also great jealousy concerning his wife, Mariamne I. She learns of Herod's plans to murder her, and stops sleeping with him. Herod puts her on trial
on a charge of adultery. His sister, Salome I, was chief witness against her. Mariamne I's mother Alexandra made an appearance and incriminated
her own daughter. Historians say her mother was next on Herod's list to be executed and did this only to save her own life.
Mariamne was executed, and Alexandra declared herself Queen, stating that Herod was mentally unfit to serve. Josephus wrote
that this was Alexandra's strategic mistake; Herod executed her without trial.
- 28 BC — Herod executed his brother-in-law Kostobar (husband of Salome, father to Berenice) for conspiracy. Large festival in Jerusalem, as Herod had built a Theatre and an Amphitheatre.
- 27 BC — An assassination attempt on Herod was foiled. To honor Augustus, Herod rebuilt
Samaria and renamed it Sebaste.
- 25 BC — Herod imported grain from Egypt and started an aid program to combat the widespread hunger and disease that followed a massive
drought. He also waives a third of the taxes.
- 23 BC — Herod built a palace in Jerusalem and the fortress Herodion (Herodium) in Judea.
He married his third wife, Mariamne II, the daughter of high priest Simon.
- 22 BC — Herod began construction on Caesarea Maritima and its harbor. The Roman emperor Augustus grants him the regions Trachonitis, Batanaea and Auranitis
to the north-east of Judea.
- Circa 18 BC — Herod traveled for the second time to Rome.
- 14 BC — Herod supported the Jews in Anatolia and Cyrene. Owing to the prosperity in Judaea he waived a quarter of the taxes.
- 13 BC — Herod made his first-born son Antipater (his son by Doris) first heir in his
- 12 BC — Herod suspected both his sons (from his marriage to Mariamne I) Alexander and
Aristobulus of threatening his life. He took them to Aquileia to be tried. Augustus reconciled the three. Herod supported the financially strapped Olympic Games and ensured their future. Herod amended his will so that Alexander and Aristobulus rose in the
royal succession, but Antipater would be higher in the succession.
- Circa 10 BC — The newly expanded temple in Jerusalem was inaugurated. War against the
- 9 BC — Caesarea Maritima was inaugurated. Owing to the course of the war against the
Nabateans, Herod fell into disgrace with Augustus. Herod again suspected Alexander of plotting to kill him.
- 8 BC — Herod accused his sons by Mariamne I of high treason. Herod reconciled with Augustus, which also gave him the permission to proceed legally against
- 7 BC — The court hearing took place in Berytos (Beirut) before a Roman court. Mariamne I's sons were found guilty and executed. The succession changed
so that Antipater was the exclusive successor to the throne. In second place the succession incorporated (Herod) Philip, his
son by Mariamne II.
- 6 BC — Herod proceeded against the Pharisees.
- 5 BC — Antipater was brought before the court charged with the intended murder of Herod.
Herod, by now seriously ill, named his son (Herod) Antipas (from his fourth marriage with Malthace) as his successor.
- 4 BC — Young disciples smashed the golden eagle over the main entrance of the Temple
of Jerusalem after the Pharisee teachers claimed it was an idolatrous Roman symbol. Herod arrested them, brought them to court,
and sentenced them. Augustus approved the death penalty for Antipater. Herod then executed his son, and again changed his will: Archelaus (from the marriage with Malthace) would rule as king over Herod's entire kingdom, while Antipas (by Malthace) and Philip (from the fifth marriage with Cleopatra of Jerusalem) would rule as Tetrarchs over Galilee and Peraea (Transjordan), also over Gaulanitis (Golan), Trachonitis (Hebrew: Argob), Batanaea (now Ard-el-Bathanyeh) and Panias. As Augustus did not confirm his will, no one got the title of King; however, the three sons
did get the stated territories.
SOPHIA OF WISDOM III - HEROD'S DEATH
SOPHIA OF WISDOM III - HEROD'S 9
SOPHIA OF WISDOM III - HEROD'S 7
SOPHIA OF WISDOM III - HEROD'S 10
Marriages and children
It is very probable that Herod had more children, especially with the last wives, and also that he
had more daughters, as female births at that time were often not recorded.
SOPHIA OF WISDOM III - HEROD'S 8
SOPHIA OF WISDOM III - HEROD'S 11
||The factual accuracy of this article is disputed.|
Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page. (March 2008)
Marriages and descendants
the Great + Doris
JFKJR | CAROLINE E. MACDONALD VANDERMEER MCRORY KENNEDY
d. 4 BC?
MARC VANDERMEER KENNEDY, JR.
Herod the Great + Mariamne I, d. 29 BC?, dt. of Alexandros.
JFK,JR CAROLYN BESSETTE
| | | |
x Aristobulus x Alexander Salampsio + Phasael Cypros
d. 7 BC? d. 7 BC? | m. Antipater(2)
m. Berenice Cypros
| | | |
Mariamne III Herod III Herodias Herod Agrippa Aristobulus V
m. her uncle King of Chalcis + King of Judea
Archelaus ? m. 1. Herod II Boethus
2. Herod Philip I
3. Herod Antipas
Herod the Great + Mariamne II, dt. of Simon the High-Priest
Herod II Herod Philip I
Herod the Great + Malthace (a Samaritan)
JFK,JR | LISA GONZALES JARIN
| | |
Herod Antipas Archelaus Olympias
b. 20 BC?
DAMEN JARIN JUSTIN JARIN
GRANDDAUGTHER OF LISA GONZALES JARIN
+ Phasaelis, DAMEN'S DAUGTHER
dt. of Aretas IV, king of Arabia
"divorced" to marry:
dt. of Aristobulus (son of Herod the Great)
Herod the Great + Cleopatra of Jerusalem
JFK,JR | LISA TOMAS - EXGIRLFRIEND OF JOHAN VANDERMEER KENNEDY, JR
Philip the Tetrarch
d. AD 34
- Antipater(2) was the son of Joseph and Salome
- Dates with ? need verifying against modern findings
Antipater the Idumaean + Cypros, Arab princess from Petra, Jordan in Nabatea.
| | | | |
Phasael Herod the Great Joseph Pheroras Salome I
|Sign & Meaning|
|+ = married|
|| = descended from|
|../——— = sibling|
|dt. = daughter|
|b. = born|
|d. = died|
|m. = was married to|
| ? = not included here or unknown|
JFK,JR. | CAROLINE E. KENNEDY
Aristobulus III of Judea Mariamne, dt.
(d. 35 BC) m. Herod the Great
(last Hasmonean scion;
appointed high priest; drowned)
old 15 years old
XCLAYTON ALEXANDER MCRORY KENNEDY AVA LEAH MCRORY KENNEDY
SOPHIA OF WISDOM III - HEROD'S 5
SOPHIA OF WISDOM III - HEROD'S 6
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